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Abraham

The ancestor of the Jews through Isaac and Jacob and of the Arabs through Ishmael.
Christianity: Abraham was justified by faith in God prior to any works of the law, so he is righteous for God (Romans 4:1-25).
Islam: Abraham was responsible for the founding of the Kaaba in Mecca.

Ahmed Deedat

Islam: South African Muslim writer and public speaker of an Indian family. He defended Muslims against Christian mission. As Islam promoter, he held many debates with evangelists in many countries on the Bible.

Allah

The deity "Allah" was worshiped at Kaaba already before Islam as the one God. Allah as the highest God was stimulated by the arrival of Judaism and Christianity in the Arabian peninsula.

Islam: In the Qur'an, Allah is the highest divine being. Allah has made himself known to Muhammad and even prophets before him. Allah in the Qur'an differs from the earlier Allah that all mankind must follow the divine law. Allah became the creator God, governor of his creation and judge in the hereafter.

Apologetics

To defend the faith in opposition to other religions and worldviews. This task cannot be limited with arguments. It also involves enabling people to discover something of the glory and beauty of God. Therefore it engages not only the mind but also the heart and the imagination.

Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh

Islam: Islamic greeting. In English: Peace be upon you and God's blessings and mercy.

Bible

Collection of Holy Scriptures, inspired by God. First part are the Hebrew Scriptures, also called the Old Testament. Second part is the New Testament, with the Gospel of Jesus Christ and a number of letters about faith in Jesus Christ.

Christ

Christianity: Greek translation Χριστός (Christos) of the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (Mashiah) for anointed. See also Messiah. Before Jesus, the Jews believed in an expected Savior (Isaiah 9:6-7) . The disciples of Jesus called him `the Christ` (e.g. Mark 8:29, Acts 5:42, 9:22). After the resurrection of Jesus, the name Christ became one of Jesus´ names (e.g. Romans 5:6, 8, 6:4, 9).

Commandments

Divine Law, for the first time revealed by the prophet Moses.
Christianity: the law exposes our sins and claims for us God's gracious will.

Contradiction

A contradiction is a conflict between statements. The validity of one statement is denied by another statement. It is a disagreement between two things which means that both cannot be true.

Covenant

Power relations of contract partners with equal rights.
Christianity: Relation of Israel with God, broken by the transgressions of the Jews (Matthew 26:28).

Creation

Beginning and the continuation of this beginning of the world and humanity.

Crucifixion

Execution method carried out by some kind of stake or post. It was considered as dishonorable, cruel and the most severe form of the death penalty. Used by the Romans since 3rd century B.C.

Disciple

Follower of Jesus Christ who assists in spreading his teachings.
Christianity: learns by hearing Jesus Christ and doing like him (John 13:13-14, 15:16).
Islam: A believer (Qur’an 3:52, 5:111). According to Islam, the disciples of Jesus are true Muslims (Qur’an 61:14).

Eid ul-Adha

Islam: Muslim feast to commemorate the willingness of Abraham to follow Allah's command to sacrifice his son. God called Abraham to offer his son as a sacrifice. However, God provided for Himself a sacrifice which was accepted as a replacement (Qur’an 37:102-107). Also called the Feast of the Sacrifice.

Eid ul-Fitr

Islam: Muslim feast marking the end of the fast of Ramadan. Also called the Sugar Feast.

Error

Departure from truth or accuracy.
Islam: Arabic: dalla. Means to err, to go astray or mistakes to belief and conduct. Qur'anic word "dalla" is more than 60 times in the Qur'an.

God

Supreme Being: Creator, Ruler of the world and origin of all moral authority. He gave Abraham fundamental promises.
Christianity: The God who reveals himself in Jesus Christ: holy, righteous, pure and perfect. He has involvement with people and showed in Jesus Christ his goodness at the cross as a sacrifce for sins.
Islam: The deity "Allah" was worshiped at Kaaba already before Islam as the one God. Allah as the highest God was stimulated by the arrival of Judaism and Christianity in the Arabian peninsula. Allah became the creator God, governor of his creation and judge in the hereafter. In the Qur'an, Allah is the highest divine being. Allah has made himself known to Muhammad and prophets before him. Allah in the Qur'an differs from the earlier Allah that all mankind must follow the divine law.

Gospel

Good news. The message about Jesus Christ, written in the books Matthew, Mark, Luke and John in the Bible.

Hadith

Islam: Collections of sayings attributed to Muhammad. The most authoritative scriptural source in Islam after the Qur'an. Inspired by Muhammad's own initiative. Six collections are recognized as reliable and authoritative, including Bukhari and Muslim.

Heaven

Christianity: Dwelling place of God and the saints who are ultimately saved by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone.

Idolatry

Worshiping other gods or demons.
Christianity: one of the mission goals is to turn from idols to the living God (1 Thessalonians 1:9, Acts 14:15).

Islam

Religion based on the Qur’an and promoted by Muhammad. The whole body of Muslim peoples, countries and states, both cultural and political.

Islam: Submission or surrender to Allah. Ideal Muslim community of people with submission to God according the message of Muhammad.

Jesus

Miraculous born and faultless living miracle worker, who is the foundation of the Christian message of salvation. He is the Messiah, also named Christ.

Christianity: God in the flesh (John 1:1,14). He has a divine and a human nature in one person (Colossians 2:9). Jesus is the Savior of mankind ((Matthew 1:21). Entering eternal life in Paradise is only possible by faith in Jesus the Messiah (John 14:6).
Islam: Prophet, messenger and servant of Allah, not the "Son of God". He received the Injil (Gospel) as a book.

Jihad

Islam: Striving. “Greater Jihad” is the battle against desire and purification of the inner being. The “Lesser Jihad” is the military campaign to fight for the position of Islam as holy war.

Judgment

Where a difference is made between the believers and unbelievers in the hereafter.
Christianity: Jesus Christ will judge the people in righteousness (John 5:22-24). For believers in Jesus the Messiah, there is guarantee that they will go to eternal Paradise (Luke 23:41-43, John 3:16).
Islam: Each soul must defend itself (Qur'an 16:112) and man's deeds will be weighed.

Kaaba

A building in a cube shape within the Grand Mosque in Mecca. Inside the building is a black stone (al-Ḥajar al-Aswad).
Islam: According to the Qur’an, Abraham raised with his son the foundations of the Kaaba. It is the holiest site in Islam. Muslims are expected to pray in the direction of the Kaaba. Pilgrimage to Kaaba is one of the pillars of Islam and required for healthy Muslims.

Law

Guidelines and rules within a system to govern moral behaviour.
Christianity: Divine Law revealed to Moses.
Islam: Laws are made up of Sharia and jurisprudence in Islam.

Mary

The mother of Jesus. She had a virginal conception of Jesus.
Christianity: Jesus warned to bless Mary (Luke 11:27-28).
Islam: Praised and honored in chapter 3 and 19 in the Qur'an.

Messiah

God´s anointed. Ideal ruler and figure in the hereafter.

Christianity: Greek: Χριστός (Christos). See also Christ. The Messiah is Jesus (John 1:41, 4:25). The Messiah has a divine role and was executed for false reasons, but will return in final glory.
Islam: Arabic: مسيح (Al-Masih). This word comes from the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (Mashiah), which means `anointed´. Eleven times found in the Qur´an. The Messiah is Jesus (Qur'an 4:171). General Muslim explanation of Messiah is just a nickname of Jesus. For some Muslims, Masiah is connected with the Arab word washing or touching. The Messiah is the one who is touched or anointed by the Holy Spirit (Roh Kudus).

Muslim

A practitioner of Islam or someone who submits to Allah through and belongs to the community of Islam.

Nabi

Islam: Prophet sent by God with his message.

Orphan

Child who has lost his parents.
Christianity: God mandates that we care for the orphans (e.g. Exodus 22:22-25, Deuteronomy 24:17-25).
Islam: Muhammad was an orphan (Qur’an 93:6). The Qur'an shows Allah's providence towards an orphan.

Paradise

Very special, beautiful and perfect place, created by God for human beings.
Christianity: Paradise was before the first sin of mankind. The perfect place for human beings is according to the New Testament replaced by Heaven, the eternal life in God's love and peace to reign forever and ever. (Revelation 2:7, 21:1-27, 22:1-5).
Islam: Janna. The blessed place forever after the Day of Judgment with excellent food, jewels and other pleasant things. A garden with fruit, rivers, virgins, carpets and comfortable pillows (Qur'an 47:15, 56:1-40, 55:70-74).

People of Israel

Islam: Term in the Qur´an for Israelites or Jews. Most references in the Qur´an are to the Israelites of the time of Moses. According to the Qur´an, the Children of Israel were God´s chosen community, but they lost their status after they betrayed God´s goodness. The Qur´an calls the sins of the Children of Israel and mentions that Jesus cursed them for their deeds (Qur'an 5:78).

People of the Book

Islam: Jews and Christians. Also called "People of the Scripture". Term in the Qur'an, Arabic: Ahl al-kitab. People who have a holy book are of divine origin or are given such a book or a part of it (Qur'an 2:144-145, 3:19-20). In all cases, sending down a holy book means a special act of grace on the part of God who chose certain people. The Jews and Christians were chosen to be the receivers of the holy book, the Bible.

Prophet

Person who has a personal relation with the monotheistic deity.

Christianity: Spokesman for God with oral, written messages or performing actions.
Islam: The prophet of Islam is Muhammad and the revelations were delivered to him by the angel Gabriel (Qur'an 2:97).

Qibla

Islam: Direction of prayer for Muslims. Standard direction is Mecca. In history, Jerusalem also has been a direction of prayer.

Qur'an

Scripture of the Muslims.

Islam: The word of Allah with a divine message and guidance for those who submit.

Ramadan

Islam: Fasting period during one month. There is every year another first day of the fasting period.

Repentance

Change in a person's attitude, will and behavior, accompanied by feelings of sorrow and regret for actions in the past.

Resurrection

Revival of the man as a whole, after a period of death.
Christianity: Belief in the resurrection is a requirement for salvation (Romans 4:25).
Islam: Resurrection is also the Day of Judgment (Qur'an 78:18-20, 18:99).

Revelation

To show a reality or message, hidden for mortals.

Christianity: Knowledge necessary for salvation and the meaning of life. Also the name of the last book in the Bible.
Islam: Spontaneous inspiration, sent by Allah, with immediate result. Also a principle of a process without an end.

Ruh

Islam: Spirit of God in the Qur’an. Jesus is called Ruh in Qur'an 4:171.

Sahabah

Islam: Companions, pupils, scribes and family of Muhammad. There are three categories: (a) Badriyans - Muslims at the time of Badar; (b) Kubbar - Muslims before the victory of Mecca and (c) Forgiven people – People who became a Muslim after the time of victory of Mecca.

Salvation

Rescue action of God in Jesus Christ with love to overcome evil and death and giving everlasting life in a relation with God.

Sam Shamoun

Christianity: Christian Apologist to Islam by debating with Muslims and refuting accusations to Christianity. He was born in Kuwait, emigrated to the United States and became an evangelical Christian.

Sharia

Islam: Law established by Allah. Islamic rules, created by jurists and specialists in religious law, that are to applied to the religious and social life of Muslims.

Shrik

Islam: Idol worship by associating another god with Allah. To associate something with Allah is forbidden in the Qur'an.

Sin

Breach and serious shortcomings in the living relation with God. Examples: lying, steeling and killing.
Christianity: Disobedience and opposition to do the will of God. Forgiveness of sin is possible by accepting the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sin. Result is that man is able to enjoy the blessings of God and peace again (John 10:9-10).
Islam: Sin is pride to God (Qur'an 12:53) and forgiveness of sin is easy to reach (Qur'an 57:28).

Soul

Connection with the self and eternal life.
Christianity: Only God can destroy the soul (Matthew 10:39).
Islam: after resurrection, unbelieving souls suffer punishment, while believing souls have wealth.

Sufi

Islam: Mystical branch of Islam. It teaches self-denial to reach a union with the Supreme Being.

Torah

Totality of the commandments of the covenant between God and his people.
Christianity: First five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Numbets, Leviticus and Deuteronomy.
Islam: Divine law, brought as a book by the prophet Moses.

Ubavy ibn Kaab

Islam: One of the writers of the Qur’an in Muhammad’s time.

Veil

Piece of cloth worn by women to cover a part of the head.
Islam: Muslim woman is required only to go out if their head, a part of the face and the body are covered.

Virgin

A person who has not experienced sexual intercourse. A virgin is connected with personal purity, honor and worth.
Christianity: Sexual fasting or self-control as chastity to be pure before the return of Jesus Christ.
Islam: Qur'anic word "Housin" means young and beautiful virgin women in Paradise. Promised to God fearing believers, including martyrs.

Wajh Allah

Face of Allah. This expression means: “For the love of Allah”.

Word of God

Manifestation of the will of God.
Christianity: Word of God is Jesus Christ (John 1:1, 14).
Islam: read revelation. Word of God is also the Word from God (Qur’an 3:45, 4:171).

Xtian

Other name for a Christian. "X" is the first letter of Χριστός, the Greek word for Christ. Associated with radical Christians or radical discipleship.

Yusuf Ali

Islam: Muslim scholar who translated the Qur'an into English in 1938. His English translation of is one of the most widely known and used by both Muslims and non-Muslims.

Zakat

Islam: Obligatory charity. One of the 5 pillars of Islam. In early Islam tax on food, jewels and merchandise. Later it a part of the harvest or income.