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Qur’an 10:92 - Pharaoh was drowned or not?

The Qur’an is telling us in Qur’an 10:90-92 that Pharaoh repented when he had a near death experience and was saved. However we read in Qur’an 17:102-103 that Pharaoh was drowned.

a. Qur’an 10: 92 - Pharaoh was not drowned
“So today We will save you in body that you may be to those who succeed you a sign. And indeed, many among the people, of Our signs, are heedless.” (Qur’an 10:92)
This verse is in contradiction with Qur’an 4:18, because Pharaoh was in the situation at the end of his life and repentance is then not possible. Muslim claims that Pharaoh´s body was saved, but not his soul are a contradiction, because a living creature without a soul cannot exist. Muslim claims that there are many Pharaohs in the Qur’an have no support of evidence. The Qur’an is only showing one Pharaoh [1]. Other Muslims say that the Pharaoh is Menpthera (Pharaoh after Ramses II) who is till today as an mummy in the Museum of Cairo. However, since there is only one Pharaoh in the Qur’an, this is in contradiction with many other Qur’an verses about the Pharaoh. It is possible to compare the repentance of the Pharaoh with a story in the Jewish Talmud, available many centuries earlier than the Qur’an: “Pharaoh, king of Egypt, uttered very wicked words – “Who is the god whose voice I shall obey? (Exodus 5:2). Yet as he repented, saying. ’Who is like unto thee among the gods?’ (Exodus 15:2). God saved him from death; for it saith; Almost had I stretched out my hands and destroyed; but God let him live” [2].

b. Qur’an 17:103: Pharaoh was drowned
“So he intended to drive them from the land, but We drowned him and those with him all together.” (Qur’an 17:103)
This verse is in agreement with the end of Pharaoh in the Bible. See Exodus 14:28-30: “And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.” and Psalm 136:13-15: “To Him who divided the Red Sea in two, For His mercy endures forever; And made Israel pass through the midst of it, For His mercy endures forever; But overthrew Pharaoh and his army in the Red Sea, For His mercy endures forever”.

c. Contradiction
We conclude from Qur´an 10: 92 and 17:103 that there is a contradiction in the Qur´an. It is likely that Muhammad or possible other Qur’an authors and editors mixed stories from different Jewish and Christian sources. Final result is a Qur’an with many contradictions [3].


Notes:

[1] Adam Silverstein, The Qur’anic Pharaoh, in: Gabriel Said Reynolds, New Perspectives on the Qur´an. The Qur´an in its historical context 2, Routledge, Oxon, 2011, 467.
[2] Pirke Rabbi Elieser, xliii; Midrash Yalkut, ccxxxviii, in: T.P. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, Kazi Publications., Chicago, 1994, 241.
[3] Adam Silverstein, The Qur’anic Pharaoh, in: Gabriel Said Reynolds, New Perspectives on the Qur´an. The Qur´an in its historical context 2, Routledge, Oxon, 2011, 469.